Welcome to Swedevox

The Swedish national register for patients on Long Term Oxygen Therapy and Home Mechanical Ventilation. General information are presented in English, complete information is available only in Swedish.



Swedevox is a national internet-based register for quality assurance of:

    • Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) for hypoxic respiratory failure

    • Long-term mechanical ventilation therapy (LTMV) for hypercapnic respiratory failure

    • CPAP therapy for sleep apnoea

The register is supported by the Swedish Society of Respiratory Medicine (SLMF). It is financed by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR), an association of the overwhelming majority of health care givers in Sweden.

Swedevox prospectively follows patients starting LTOT since 1987, LTMV since 1996 and CPAP since July 2010. All Swedish hospitals (with some exceptions for CPAP) report their patients to the register. Completeness of data is facilitated by our tax-financed health care within a homogenous health care system. Vital status is checked monthly from the Swedish Population register. 

The annual reports of the Swedevox Register (in Swedish only) contain demographic and physiologic data on the patients and a limited amount on treatment details. Patient Related Outcome Measures are also reported to the register, unfortunately the data are rather incomplete due to logistic reasons.

Results on national levels are discussed on annual meetings for participating physicians, nurses and physiotherapists. On-line presentations of continuously updated data for all clinics are publically available on the register´s website.

Register data are also used for research:




Ekström M, Albrecht D, Andersson S, Grote L, Kärrsten-Rundström B, Palm A, Theorell-Haglöw J, Wahlberg J, Midgren B. Validation of Swedevox registry of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), long-term mechanical ventilator (LTMV) and long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). European Respiratory Journal Open Research 2020; 7(1): 00340-2020.
Palm A, Sundh J, Theorell-Haglöw J, Ågren K, Midgren B, Ljunggren M, Grote L, Ekström M. Cohort Profile: Course of DISease In patients reported to the Swedish CPAP Oxygen and VEntilator RegistrY (DISCOVERY) with population-based controls. British Medical Journal Open 2020; 10:e040396.
Jacobs SS, Krishnan JA, Lederer DJ, Ghazipura M, Hossain T, Tan AM, Carlin B, Drummond MB, Ekström M, Garvey C, Graney BA, Jackson B, Kallstrom T, Knight SL, Lindell K, Prieto-Centurion V, Renzoni EA, Ryerson CJ, Schneidman A, Swigris J, Upson D, Holland AE. Home Oxygen Therapy for Adults with Chronic Lung Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2020; 202(10):e121-e141.



Sundh J, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Ahmadi Z, Blomberg A, Janson C, Currow DC, McDonald CF, McCaffrey N, Ekström M. REgistry-based randomized controlled trial of treatment Duration and mortality in long-term OXygen therapy (REDOX) study protocol. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2019; 19(1):50.

Lacasse Y, Krischnan J, Maltais F, Ekström M. Patient registries for home oxygen research and evaluation. International Journal of COPD 2019; 14: 1299—1304.

Heddini A, Sundh J, Ekström M, Janson C. Effectiveness trials: critical data to help understand how respiratory medicines really work? Eur Clin Respir Journal 2019; 29;6(1):1565804.




Bajwah S, Davies J, Tanash H, Currow DC, Oluyase A, Ekström M. Safety of benzodiazepines and opioids in interstitial lung disease: A national prospective study. European Respiratory Journal 2018; 52: 180127 


Sundh J, Ahmadi Z, Ekström M. Daily duration of long-term oxygen therapy and risk of hospitalization in oxygen-dependent COPD patients. International Journal of COPD 2018:13 2623–2628


Palm A, Midgren B, Theorell-Haglöw J, Ekström M, Ljunggren M, Jansson C, Lindberg E.  Factors influencing adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment in obstructive sleep apnea and mortality associated with treatment failure – a national registry-based cohort study. Sleep Medicine 2018, 51: 85-91.




Ekström M, Ahmadi Z, Larsson H, Nilsson T, Wahlberg J, Ström KE, Midgren B. A nationwide structure for valid long-term oxygen therapy: 29-year prospective data in Sweden Int J COPD 2017; 12:3159-3169.


Ekström M, Tanash H. Lung transplantation and survival outcomes in patients with oxygen-dependent COPD with regard to their alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency status. Int J COPD 2017. Accepted.


Tanash H, Ringbaek T, Huss F, Ekström M. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and sweden: the potential role of smoking. Int J COPD 2017; 12:193-197.





Ahmadi Z, Currow DC, Ekström M. Prescription of Opioids for Breathlessness in End-Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: a National Population Based Study. Int J COPD 2016; 11:2651-2657.


Ahmadi Z, Currow DC, Ekström M. The need for greater opioid pharmacovigilance in COPD: authors’ reply.  Int J COPD 2017; 12:189-192.


Ahmadi Z, Sundh J, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Ekström M. Long-term oxygen therapy 24 vs 15 h/day and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0163293.


Ahmadi Z, Wysham N, Lundström S, Janson C, Currow DC, Ekström M. End of life care in oxygen-dependent ILD compared to lung cancer: a national population-based study. Thorax 2016; 71(6):510-516.


Ekström M. The Clinical Usefulness of Long-Term Oxygen Therapy in Adults. New England J Med 2016; 375(17):1683-1684


Ekström M. What can we learn about breathlessness from population-based and administrative health data? Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2016; 10(3):223–227.


Ekström M, Ahmadi Z, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Abernethy AA, Currow DC. Oxygen for breathlessness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who do not qualify for home oxygen therapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016; 11: CD006429.


Ekström M, Bornefalk-Hermansson A. Cardiovascular and Anti-Acid Treatment and Mortality in Oxygen-Dependent Pulmonary Fibrosis: a Population-Based Longitudinal Study. Respirology.  2016 May;21(4):705-11.


Palm A, Midgren B, Janson C, Lindberg E. Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Respir Med 2016; 110: 73-8.





Ahmadi Z, Lundström S, Janson C, Strang P, Emtner M, Currow DC, Ekström M. End-of-life care in oxygen-dependent COPD and cancer: a national population-based study. Eur Resp J 2015;46(4):1190-3.


Tanash H, Huss F, Ekström M. The risk of burn injury during long term oxygen therapy: a 17-year longitudinal national study in Sweden. Int J COPD 2015; 10:2479–2484.


Ekström M, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Abernethy A, Currow D. Low-dose opioids should be considered for symptom relief also in advanced COPD. Evid Based Med 2015 Jan 6. pii: ebmed-2014-110130.




Ekström M, Gustafson T, Boman K, et al. Effects of smoking, gender and occupational exposure on the risk of severe pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based casecontrol study. BMJ Open 2014;4:e004018. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004018


Ekström M, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Abernethy AP, Currow DC. Safety of benzodiazepines and opioids in very severe respiratory disease: national prospective study. BMJ 2014;348:g445


Ahmadi Z, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Franklin KA, Midgren B, Ekström MP. Hypo- and hypercapnia predict mortality in oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based prospective study. Respir Res. 2014 Mar 13;15(1):30. [Epub ahead of print]


Ekström MP. The rise and fall of COPD mortality. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Jan;2(1):4-6.



Ekström MP, Bornefalk Hermansson A, Ström KE. Effects of Cardiovascular Drugs on Mortality in Severe COPD: A Time-Dependent Analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(7): 715-720




Ekström MP, Jogréus C, Ström KE. Comorbidity and sex-related differences in mortality in oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35806



Ekström MP, Wagner P, Ström KE. Trends in cause-specific mortality in oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 2011; 183:1032-36.



Ekström M, Franklin KA, Ström KE. Increased Relative Mortality in Women with Severe Oxygen-dependent COPD. Chest 2010; 137:31-36.

Tollefsen E, Midgren B, Bakke P, Fondenes O. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Gender differences in the use of mechanical ventilation. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17:1352-57

Midgren B. Home mechanical ventilation in chest wall disease should aim at full correction of PaCO2. Respir Med 2010; 104:1765-6.



Gustafson T, Löfdahl K, Ström K. A model of quality assessment in patients on long-term oxygen therapy. Respir Med 2009;103: 209-15.



Jäger L, Franklin KA, Midgren B, Löfdahl K, Ström K. Increased survival with mechanical ventilation in posttuberculosis patients with the combination of respiratory failure and chest wall deformity.  Chest 2008; 133: 156-60



Laub M, Midgren B. Survival of patients on home mechanical ventilation. A nationwide prospective study.  Respiratory Medicine 2007;101:1074-1078.   

  Midgren B. Home mechanical ventilation. A growing challenge in an aging society (editorial). Respiratory Medicine 2007;101:1066-1067.   

  Franklin K, Gustafson T, Ranstam J, Ström K. Survival and future need of long-term oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - gender differences. Respiratory Medicine 2007;101(7):1506-11.   

  Gustafson T, Dahlman-Höglund A, Nilsson K, Ström K, Tornling G, Torén G. Occupational exposure and severe pulmonary fibrosis. Respiratory Medicine, 2007 Oct;101(10):2207-12.



Laub M, Berg S, Midgren B. Symptoms, clinical and physiological findings motivating home mechanical ventilation in patients with neuromuscular diseases. J Rehab Med 2006; 38: 250-254.